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ven. 02/10/2020 Réunion Interne
Axe DiLiS - Réunion inaugurale
14h-17h
MSH, amphi Marc Bloch
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mar. 06/10/2020 Alienability contrasts in grammar and lexicon
10h-12h
ISH, salle Elise Rivet
Conférence de :
  • An Van linden (University of Liège)
dans le cadre DTT : Atelier Morphosyntaxe

This series of seminars looks into alienability contrasts and – taking grammatical typology as a starting point – fosters interaction with lexical typology and psycholinguistics. While adnominal possession (‘my arm’ vs. ‘my garden’) is a well-researched area of grammar where alienability contrasts show up, the series aims to cast the net wider, and also invites contributions that deal with other alienability phenomena, at any morphosyntactic level of description. For instance, whereas some clause-level phenomena have been attested in Eurasia (e.g. the body part locative construction in English as in Sam kissed Joe on the cheek), the Americas are well-known for the ubiquity of a particular word-level phenomenon, i.e. that of bound nouns, or obligatorily possessed nouns, as opposed to independent or optionally possessed nouns. Also welcome are talks presenting (cross-linguistic comparisons of) inventories of lexical items that are treated as inalienable in grammar. Ultimately, the idea is to better understand to what extent the alienability contrast is universal. Where do individual languages have their “cut-off point” in the lexicon, i.e. to what extent is it culturally determined which items are grammatically treated as inalienably possessed?


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jeu. 08/10/2020 Atelier "Méthodes"
10h-12h
MSH - Elise Rivet

Les étudiantes du département d'orthophonie présenteront les outils d'évaluation ci-dessous : 1. Claire et Marion : langage oral précoce et TSA - outil SOS.com (Situations d'Observation Structurées de la communication) 2. Amélie et Agnès : dysgraphie - grille d'observation du comportement scripteur 3. Caroline et Alix : capacités rythmiques - BAASTA (Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities) 4. Isabelle et Magali : langage et mémoire - BECS - GRECO (Batterie d'Evaluation des Connaissances Sémantiques du Groupe de Réflexion sur les Évaluations Cognitives)




jeu. 08/10/2020 Club PAD (DENDY): Protocole à la Demande
12h-13h
MSH, Elise Rivet
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mer. 14/10/2020 Réunion Interne
Axe DENDY - Réunion de rentrée
14h-16h
MSH, Salle E. Rivet
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ven. 16/10/2020 Séminaire du laboratoire
Language change without innovation
14h-16h
ISH, amphi Marc Bloch
Conférence de :
  • Ferdinand von Mengden (Freie Universität Berlin)

In this paper, I argue for an emergent view on language and language change as sketched by Hopper 1987. In contrast to structuralist tenets, which see language as a pre-established system that exists prior to usage (‘langue’, ‘competence’), Emergent Grammar implies that the linguistic system “is always deferred, always in a process but never arriving, and therefore emergent” (Hopper 1987: 141).

While recent usage-based approaches to language change have taken the variability and the dynamic character of language into consideration, they have remained structuralist in spirit in that they still see language change as a transition between default stages (‘while A becomes B, there is a transitory period in which A and B coexist’). Concepts like ‘bridging contexts’, ‘switch contexts’ (Heine 2002; Diewald 2002) and the idea of invited inferences (Traugott/Dasher 2002) suggest that, when a linguistic form changes its function or meaning, this requires contexts in which both old and new function constitute part of the interpretation of an utterance. For example, English since, usually encodes causality on the basis of a temporal relation on the propositional level. This view has been a great advantage over earlier accounts on language change, in which change is simply seen as a difference between an earlier and a later “stage” in a language’s history without making any statement on how form or meaning of expressions change.

This view, however, does not account for the fact (among other things) that those attestations of since which are unambiguously either exclusively temporal or exclusively causal are extremely rare. In my talk, I would therefore like to go a step further. I will argue that the linguistic sign is inherently negotiable, underspecified and subject to interpretation. Rather than striving for logical clarity, interlocutors generally handle ambiguities through clues provided by the respective context. Language change, then, does not require innovation but ‘recontextualization’ – that is, the use of an existing sign / construction in a different context (rather than the use of a new or altered sign). I will discuss well-documented cases of language change and demonstrate that canonical types of changes (e.g. the grammaticalization / reanalysis in I’m going to Lyon > I’m gonna like Lyon) do not require any innovative behaviour on part of a speaker, but reflect the use of one and the same construction being constantly recontextualized. A beneficial theoretical side effect of this claim is that the notion of ‘recontextualization’ is well-compatible with other systems that have been described as ‘emergent’ in various fields outside linguistics. Partly under different notions (‘flexible transfer’, ‘bricolage’), the concept has been described in diverse fields such as primate behavior studies or cultural anthropology (Kuhle 2019; von Mengden & Kuhle 2020).

Because, as Emergent Grammar implies, language does not exist outside usage and since context is part of usage, the contextual conditions of each speech act (conversation) are essential for (rather than external to) the linguistic sign. Rather than speaking of an impact of context on language change, Emergent Grammar suggests a symbiotic relationship between the sign and the context of usage. Context, in other words, is a necessary ingredient of language which allows for communication with inherently vague, variable and ambiguous signs.

References:

Diewald, Gabriele. 2002. A model for relevant types of contexts in grammaticalization. In New Reflections on Grammaticalization. Edited by Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald. Typological Studies in Language. 49. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 103-20.

Heine, Bernd. 2002. On the role of context in grammaticalization. In New Reflections on Grammaticalization. Edited by Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald. Typological Studies in Language 49. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, Pa.: Benjamins. 83-101.

Hopper, Paul J. 1987. Emergent Grammar. In Berkeley Linguistic Society. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting, February 14-16, 1987: General Session and Parasession on Grammar and Cognition. Edited by Jon Aske, Natasha Beery, Laura Michaelis, Hana Filip. 13. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistic Society. 139-57.

Kuhle, Anneliese. 2019. Tool Intelligence as an Explanation of Cross-Linguistic Variation and Family Resemblance: An Evolutionary and Typological Investigation. Lanham, My.: Lexington.
von Mengden, Ferdinand & Anneliese Kuhle. 2020. Recontextualization and Language Change. Folia Lingusitica Historia 41.2020.

Traugott, Elizabeth C. & Robert B. Dasher. 2002. Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 96. Cambridge: CUP.


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lun. 19/10/2020 Discussion de l'article "Cultural influences on word meanings revealed through large-scale semantic alignment" (Thompson et al. 2020, Nature Human Behaviour)
14h00-15h30
ISH, salle Ennat Léger + à distance (tixeo)
Conférence de :
  • Marc Tang
atelier "Origines de la Diversité Linguistique", axe DiLiS

A noter: salle avec maximum 10 places! Pour participer à distance, envoyez un mail à Brigitte Pakendorf ou Marc Tang pour recevoir le lien Tixeo.


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mar. 20/10/2020 Possessive noun classes in Mojeño Trinitario (Arawak, Bolivia)
10h-12h
ISH, salle Elise Rivet
Conférence de :
  • Françoise Rose (DDL)
dans le cadre DTT : Atelier Morphosyntaxe

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mer. 21/10/2020 Réunion Interne
Assemblée Générale du laboratoire
9h30-12h
Amphithéâtre Benveniste, MOM, 7 rue Raulin, 69007 Lyon
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